Fetal Surgery Outcome Improves by Treating Mom with Medication
CINCINNATI–How can fetal surgeons provide the best care for the most common condition worldwide requiring fetal surgery?
Not only by treating the fetus but also by giving medication to the mother, according to a new study from the Fetal Care Center of Cincinnati. The study, published online in the American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, shows improved survival rates for twin-twin transfusion syndrome complicated by cardiomyopathy by giving the mother a medication for hypertension prior to fetal surgery.
As a result, the "donor” twin has slowed growth and decreased amniotic fluid, while the "recipient” twin has too much amniotic fluid and develops high blood pressure and a progressive form of heart failure.
Without treatment, TTTS is fatal for at least 90 percent of twins, and both twins are at risk for severe complications. Crombleholme analyzed 141 fetal surgeries for TTTS in which the mother was given nifedipine 24-48 hours before fetal surgery. In all these cases, fetal echocardiography had indicated that the recipient twin showed signs of heart muscle disease, which occurs in about 70 percent of TTTS cases.
Nifedipine belongs to a class of medications called calcium channel blockers that are used to treat angina (heart pain) and high blood pressure and to treat preterm labor in pregnancy.
There was a significant increase in overall fetal survival in mothers treated with nifedipine compared to those who didn’t receive the medication (83 percent to 75 percent). The improved survival was entirely due to improved survival in the recipient twins; nifedipine treatment had no effect on donor twin survival, according to Crombleholme, who is also a surgeon at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, where the Fetal Care Center is located.
"The results of this study have changed the way mothers with TTTS are treated,” he says.
"The Fetal Care Center of Cincinnati is now offering nifedipine to all mothers with TTTS complicated by cardiomyopathy caused by fetal hypertension.”
The Fetal Care Center of Cincinnati is a collaboration among Cincinnati Children’s, Good Samaritan Hospital and UC Health University Hospital. Since the Center was established in 2004, Crombleholme and his colleagues have performed more than 600 fetal surgeries for TTTS.